S.S. Brazil

   

S.S. Virginia

S.S. Brazil

S.S. Virginia

(The Virginia has twin funnels)

S.S. Brazil

 

1928

The Virginia was built for The Panama Pacific Line at Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Co., Ltd., in Virginia for passage from New York via the Panama Canal to San Francisco.   Length - 613 feet; Breadth - 80 feet; Displacement - 32,816 tons; Turbine - Electric; Twin Screw; Speed - 17.0 to 18.5 knots.  First Class Passengers - 184; Tourist Class - 365; Crew - 350.  The ship was launched and operated by Panama Pacific Line and traveled regularly from New York to Havana, then through the Panama Canal, to San Diego, Los Angeles Harbor, and San Francisco - One Way Water, One Way Rail.

If you were in First Class, a few of the luxuries on board was that if a passenger did not occupy a room with a private bath, he may apply to the Bath Steward to arrange for a definite time each day for use of bath.   Also deck chairs and steamer rugs may be hired at $1.50 each for the entire voyage and $1 between ports en route.  Chair cushions may be hired for $1 each for the voyage.

Passengers were informed that professional gamblers are reported as frequently traveling on passenger steamers and are warned to take precautions accordingly.

December 8, 1928

The Virginia sailed on her maiden voyage. 

1929-1937

The Virginia along with her sister ships, the California and Pennsylvania, were initially successful for the Panama Pacific Lines New York to San Franciso route via the Panama Canal.  But with the advent of the depression, removal of the government mail subsidy, and the critical labor problems centering around the California, it became tougher for the Panama Pacific Line to maintain the three ships. 

1936

On a trip to Buenos Aires President Roosevelt noticed a lack of American flag vessels.  Once he returned to the United States he decided to rectify the situation and brought the "Good Neighbor Fleet" into existence.

1937

The Virginia was sold to U.S. Maritime Commission and refurbished (including removal of one funnel) for passage from New York to Buenos Aires, by American Republic Line, operated by Moore & McCormack Lines.  To carry out the President's wishes for good will with South America, the Virginia was renamed the S.S. Brazil, a Good Neighbor ship.

Cargo Space - 450,000 Cubic Feet Bale Capacity; 95,000 Cubic Feet Refrigerated Space.  Pre-War Passenger Capacity - 470; Crew Complement - 380.

September 6, 1938

The United States Maritime Commission formally accepted the S.S. Brazil from the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation at the company's Brooklyn plant at 56th Street.  Tomorrow she will be transferred to Hoboken for final attention preparatory to her entry into the South American service.

Work completed on the Brazil included scaling and painting of the hull from the keel up, structural changes such as the closing of the well forward to add deck space, closing of a space aft to provide a sheltered deck for the tourist class, installation of a Lido deck, tiled swimming pool and a bar in the veranda cafe for first class, and alterations necessary to change 52 staterooms into half that number of larger rooms.  Work also included removal of the after stack and streamlining of the forward one, inspection of the propellers, installation of a fathometer, new watertight doors electrically controlled from the bridge, air-conditioning equipment for the tourist-class dining room, replacement of lifeboats, complete rearrangement of the crew's quarters and installation of a modern laundry plant to make possible a 12-hour service for passengers.

 The Brazil (the Virginia of the Panama Pacific Line in the intercoastal service) had been at the Bethlehem plant since June 21.  She was the first of three large passenger and freight ships to sail from New York under the house flag of the American Republics Line, operated by Moore & McCormack.  Emmet J. McCormack, in a brief statement said:  "The South American trade, in so far as the United States is concerned, has been touched only at its surface.  With this ship and her two sister liners in service the United States will be making a new bid for its proper place in the South American field.  They are larger than any other American ships now serving South America and will be able, in conjunction with our fleet of freight ships, to provide a speed that is now lacking."

Among those present at the transfer of the ship were H. W. Warley, President of the Maritime Exchange and Vice President of the Calmar Steamship Company; Eugene F. Moran, President of the Moran Towing and Transportation Company; Daniel Brierly, Director of the Technical Division of the Maritime Commission, and Frank B. Otto, who has represented the Commission in supervision of reconditioning work on the vessel.

October 3, 1938

The S.S. Brazil was taken on a trial run to Fire Island and Barnegat Light.  In a radio message to the New York offices of the Maritime Commission, Captain Harry Sadler, her master, said the ship responded perfectly and indicated that she was ready to go to sea.

October 4, 1938

Moore-McCormack formally took over operation of the S.S. Brazil by the signing of the necessary papers by Captain Granville Conway, Director of the Maritime Commission in New York, and Robert C. Lee, Executive Vice President of Moore-McCormack Lines.  The signing took place aboard the S.S. Brazil.

Appointed for the S.S. Brazil were Victor Link, Chief Engineer; R. L. Santaella, Purser; Merritt D. Mullen, Chief Officer; Howard F. Lane, First Officer; and Dr. G. T. Gill, Surgeon.

October 6, 1938

The S.S. Brazil was the scene of a formal dinner at which the Ambassadors and Ministers and consul general of the South American countries were the guests of honor.

October 8, 1938

The S.S. Brazil sailed at noon for Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Montevideo, Buenos Aires and Trinidad.

November 15, 1938

The American Republics liner, S.S. Brazil, was the first vessel to complete the round-trip voyage to Buenos Aires.  The ship returned with 141 passengers, including the good-will mission that carried President Roosevelt's personal greetings to South Americans.

December 31, 1938

The S.S. Brazil sailed for Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires on her last voyage for the American Republics' liner under the auspices of Moore & McCormack as managing agents for the United States Maritime Commission.

1939

Eleanor M. Britton began working for Moore-McCormack Lines as a Cruise Director on the S.S. Brazil

September 18, 1939

The S.S. Brazil docked early with 358 passengers.  Captain Harry Sadler, master of the S.S. Brazil, said the voyage had been "serene" with the exception of a false report that a child had fallen overboard about 6 pm last Saturday.  An excited passenger gave the alarm and a lifeboat was lowered.  Passengers gathered at the rails while mothers hurried about the ship in search of their children.  Mrs. Robert C. Lee, wife of the vice president of Moore-McCormack Lines, Inc., said she fainted when she heard the alarm because she had her four children on board.

The lifeboat returned with an empty pail that had been floating on the sea and Captain Sadler ordered a muster of all on board to make certain that no one was missing.

Among the passengers was Mrs. Hortense Odlum, president of Bonwit Teller.  She said there was no city in the world where women dressed as well as they did in New York.  On the question of the new corset and bustle styles that have excited fashion circles here and abroad, Mrs. Odlum was less positive.  "I don't know much about it," she declared.  "But I will say that while I am for style and fashion, I am also in favor of naturalness, and I believe that women should dress comfortably.  I take a middle-of-the-road attitude between style and comfort."

Getulio Vargas, Jr., son of the President of Brasil, returned on the S.S. Brazil to continue his studies in chemical engineering at Johns Hopkins University.  Also on board was the wife of the Brasilian Ambassador, Carlos Martine Pereira e Souza.

April 13, 1940

The S.S. Brazil docked after a record-breaking run from Buenos Aires.  The ship, under the command of Captain Henry N. Sadler, made the trip in 14 days and 12 hours, the fastest time for a passenger liner.  The ship's actual cruising time was just over 13 days and her best speed was 18.96 knots.   There were 273 passengers on board, 195 of whom were in first class.   Included among the passengers were Commander Kirkwood H. Donavin, Manager of the South American offices of Moore-McCormack Lines; Ted Peckham, who formerly operated an escort service; and Frederico O. Bemberg, wealthy businessman of Buenos Aires.

The Brazil usually made the voyage in 16 days.  She made good time on this trip because the usual call at Trinidad was omitted and she came in early so she could have sufficient time in New York to go to dry-dock for her annual survey.

May 14, 1940

Arturo Toscanini sailed today on the S.S. Brazil with the 100-piece NBC Symphony Orchestra for a concert tour of South America, where he made his debut as a conductor at the age of 19 and which he has not revisited for 25 years.  The conductor will arrive in Rio on June 12 and will make 16 appearances in Brasil, Argentina, and Uruguay. 

Arturo Toscanini and his orchestra performed a concert on board the ship while being broadcast live on radio.  (A sailor to the core, Eleanor Britton on land was thrilled to hear the ship's whistle on the radio.)  

A few days later while still on board ship, Toscanini heard over the radio that Italy attacked France.  He became very upset and locked himself in his stateroom.

The Toscanini tour marks the climax of the campaign of South American nations to take advantage of the war in Europe by obtaining the services of world-famous artists.  Leopold Stokowski and Jascha Heifetz also will make appearances in South American countries.

September 28, 1941

While departing Buenos Aires, the S.S. Brazil, under the command of Captain Harry N. Sadler, hit a 14,187-ton Spanish ship, the Cabo de Buena Esperanza. No damage occurred and no one was hurt. The Cabo de Buena Esperanza was originally built in 1921 for the U.S. Shipping Board and christened Hoosier State. In 1922 she was renamed President Lincoln and in 1923 she was purchased by Dollar Steamship Company. In 1940, she was sold to Ybarra y CIA, a Spanish shipping company, and renamed Maria del Carmen, then Cabo de Buena Esperanza

November 1941

After researching for the Disney animated film, "Os Três Cabelleros," Walt Disney and some from his team (El Grupo) left on a Grace Lines ship, Santa Clara, leaving from Valparaiso, Chile, on October 4, arriving in New York on October 20.

Director Jack Cutting remained behind in South America, but shipped some records, books, newspapers, and other materials to the studio on the S.S. Brazil.  For this reason, Moore-McCormack was mentioned in the credits at the end of the film. 

December 5, 1941

S.S. Brazil was due to sail from New York to Buenos Aires at midnight, but fog prevented her from departing that day.  Farewell parties were held and passengers stayed on board over night.

December 6, 1941

0800 hrs.

Eight hours late, Captain Edward G. Barrett, Assistant Marine Superintendent, took the S.S. Brazil out on his first run to the South Atlantic.  He was substituting for Captain Harry N. Sadler, so Captain Sadler could take Christmas vacation with his family.  On board the "Christmas Sailing" were 316 passengers which included 150 American construction workers, and a crew of about 400.  Five Japanese were on board.

The ship also carried a record mail cargo for the trade consisting of 8,000 to 9,000 sacks of mail, compared with an average of 4,000 and a former high mark of 7,000 sacks.

The S.S. Brazil was the last ship to leave the United States before Pearl Harbor was bombed.

December 7, 1941

"A Day which will live in Infamy!" 

December 8, 1941

Congress officially declared War with Japan.  Portholes were sealed and blacked out and the interior lights were painted blue and purple in order to black out ship while sailing in international waters. 

December 10, 1941

The ship docked for her scheduled stop in the British Crown Colony of Barbados.  British Intelligence Officers came aboard and removed the five Japanese, Shigeto Nigai, Chancellor of the Washington Embassy; R. Ando, an attaché; Hirochi Takagi, Third Secretary; Kazushige Hirasawa, Consul in New York, and his wife. (It is assumed they booked their passage weeks in advance with the intention of being out of the United States when the "blow" fell.)

December 11, 1941

The public address system woke the passengers up with the news that the United States was at war with Germany and Italy.

December 24, 1941

The Brazil arrived in Buenos Aires on December 23.  "Ghost Ship Arrives -- Wartime Conditions on Brazil," reports newspaper in Buenos Aires.

Read two articles written about the first days of the War aboard the S.S. Brazil >  Memories and Photos. 

Latter Part of December 1941

Brazil's northbound trip took 35 days, carried about 135 passengers, of which 56 of them were aviation cadets from Argentina, Brasil, and Uruguay on their way to the United States to be trained.

1942

S.S. Brazil became a United States Army Transport ship ("USAT") for the War Shipping Administration. 

March 19 thru May 12, 1942

USAT Brazil departed Charleston, South Carolina, en route to Karachi, India, carrying 4,000 U.S. troops from various Army units.

November 16- 30, 1942

USAT Brazil left Oran, French Algeria, to Newport News, Virginia, transporting 4 officers and 40 ratings from a German U-boat. 

December 11-24, 1942

USAT Brazil and her sister, USAT Argentina, departed Fort Dix, New Jersey, arriving at Casablanca, Morocco.  Both ships carried units of the 2nd Division.

October 1944

USAT Brazil arrived in Boston with troops from the 475th MPEG Company.  POWs were also passengers on this voyage.

October 22, 1944

USAT Brazil sailed from Staten Island, New York, with the 290th Infantry Regiment, arriving at Swansea, Wales, November 1, 1944.  The 290th went on to fight in three major campaigns - the Ardennes (Battle of the Bulge), Central Europe, and the Rhineland.

January 1-15, 1945

USAT Brazil left New York Pier 90 as flagship of the 57th Ship Convoy, arriving in Le Havre, France.  She was the first ship to sail directly into Le Havre after the Normandy Invasion, docking in the middle of the Bay because all the piers were bombed out.

During World War II, Moore-McCormack Lines operated more than 150 ships, lost 11 vessels, transported 754,239 troops, and carried 34,410,111 tons of war cargo.  USAT Brazil survived the War with only minor mishaps. 

March 1946

The "bride fleet" consisting of the liners, Washington, John Ericsson, Brazil, Santa Paula, and Vulcania, is being used by the Army on westbound voyages to bring wives and children of American service personnel to the United States.  Passengers are being booked on a one-way, one-class basis, with no facilities available for definite return passage.  Space is available for 400 passengers and nothing approaching the luxury of pre-war shipboard travel is yet obtainable.  Passenger accommodations are not as "rugged" as returning soldiers found them, but they are far below peacetime standards.

June 12, 1946

Invitations to bid have been issued by the Maritime Commission for the reconversion of the Brazil.  The turbo-electric vessel is to be removed from her wartime role as a troopship and returned to peacetime passenger-cargo service.  After prospective bidders on the reconversion task have inspected the ship, bids are to be scheduled to be opened on July 8.

August 4, 1946

The Brazil, from which diptheria anti-toxin was transferred to the troopship Colby Victory at sea last week, arrived at Pier 54, North River from Le Havre, Cobh and Southampton with 531 passengers.  It was the last crossing before reconversion from a wartime transport to a regular passenger and cargo vessel. 

Brazil's transfer of the diphteria anti-toxin to the Colby Victory was carried out after she had intercepted a 9:30 a.m. radio message from the troopship, which was carrying 1,009 replacement troops from New York to Bremerhaven.  One of the troops had died from what was described as laryngeal diphtheria in a preliminary diagnosis and the anti-toxin was requested to prevent further cases of the disease.  Brazil's course was altered to bring her alongside the Colby Victory 500 miles off Argentia, Newfoundland.

It was discovered later that the death was caused by pneumonia and that there had been no diphtheria cases on the ship. 

August 1946

The Government allowed Moore-McCormack to take over the operation of the  ship and she was sent to the shipyards to be reconverted from a troop carrier into a luxury liner.  During the war, the Brazil carried an estimated 150,000 troops.

Reconversion took place at the Atlantic Basin Iron Works, Brooklyn.  Interior decoration by William F. Schorn, Architect, 198 Broadway, New York.  The ship was entirely redecorated, rebuilt, refurnished, and completely fire-proofed.

Post-war passenger capacity (approx.) - 359 First Class; 160 Cabin Class.

April 6, 1947

Raymond Santaella, 57 years old, chief pursuer of the S.S. Brazil, died today in the front yard of his home at 55 Arleigh Road during an argument with his brother-in-law, Joseph Wheeler.

April 29, 1948

Captain Harry N. Sadler will command the Brazil when the ship resumes service May 20.

May 6, 1948

The Brazil was scheduled on this date to make her final test runs.  The new Brazil was rebuilt at a cost of $9,000,000 and E. J. Crofoot, President of the Blair Holdings Corporation, parent company of Atlantic Basin, considered the Brazil to be the largest commercial peacetime reconversion job ever done at the Atlantic Basin Iron Works in Brooklyn.

The Brazil was designed with a special sprinkler system, 12 fire zones, fire screen bulkheads and bridge-controlled fire doors and will be as safe as any vessel afloat.  Another of her features was a system of specially designed water intakes that will permit the ship to pump water from mud bottoms encountered in some South American harbors.

The redesign of the passenger and crew accommodations was done by William F. Schorn, a New York architect, who also did the Uruguay.

May 7, 1948

S.S. Brazil was formally returned to Moore-McCormack Lines by the Maritime Commission to resume operation.  She was the last of the three sister ships that resumed service as a passenger luxury liner. 

May 20, 1948

Newly reconverted, the S.S. Brazil set sail from Pier 32, North River, for her first post-war voyage, a 12-day West Indies cruise calling at Bermuda, Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, San Juan, Ciudad Trujillo and returning to New York on June 1.

June 4, 1948

S.S. Brazil sailed to South America sailing from New York to Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Montevideo, Buenos Aires, Port-of-Spain, and Trinidad.

May 1948

Two veteran seamen, both residents at Sailors Snug Harbor on Staten Island, were wide-eyed guests of the Atlantic Basin Iron Works when the shipyard conducted a trial run at sea for the reconverted liner, S.S. Brazil.  The seamen were Captain Arthur T. Bricher, 61 years old, a former deck officer with Moore-McCormack Lines, and Chief Engineer Maurice Healy, 78, a veteran who served with numerous American lines from 1887 until his retirement 15 years ago. 

As the S.S. Brazil steamed up and down the New Jersey coast, the old-timers roamed the ship from bridge to the lowest decks, examining radar, ship-to-shore telephone, navigating instruments and other equipment developed since their first days at sea.

May 3, 1949

Cunard's Queen Mary and Mauretania, the Gdynia America liner Batory, and the S.S. Brazil, carrying a combined passenger complement of 3,564 persons were hampered by fog in the Port of New York.  The blanketing mists caught the passenger ships as they approached Ambrose Lightship and forced them to anchor outside the Channel for as much as six hours.  The Batory and the Brazil docked at 1 pm at North River piers.

September 5, 1949

Victor de Sabata, conductor of La Scala Opera in Milan, Italy, arrived at Pier 32 on the S.S. Brazil.  He will conduct first the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, and later will appear in Chicago, Philadelphia, and New York. 

October 20, 1949

The Moore-McCormack Lines "Good Neighbor" fleet began its 12th year of service with the sailing of the S.S. Brazil for Rio, Montevideo, and Buenos Aires.  The ship left with 410 passengers from the North River pier at Canal Street shortly after 5 pm.  Among the passengers was Stanton Griffis, recently appointed by President Truman to succeed James Bruce as Ambassador to Argentina.

February 23, 1950

Retired Real Admiral Augustin T. Beauregard, a naval officer, and his wife were among 289 passengers who sailed on the S.S. Brazil.  He feels he can live more comfortably in Brasil than anywhere else in the world.  Admiral Beauregard described his fondness for Latin America and said he has been a member of every United States naval mission to Brasil in the last 30 years.  At the time of his retirement in 1943, he was chief of the operating base as well as naval attaché in Rio de Janeiro.

The Admiral is a grandnephew of Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, the Confederate officer who commanded the attack on Ft. Sumter at the outbreak of the Civil War.

January 22, 1951

Gems valued at about $2.5 million belonging to Senhora Gabrielle Bezazoni Lage, widow of a fabulously wealthy Brasilian industrialist, were aboard the S.S. Brazil with their owner.  The jewels were part of her luggage and left in the custody of the ship's purser during the trip to New York.  The gems were examined by the Customs inspectors before being removed from the purser's office.  They were carried to the pier by Senhora Lage and a personal physician.  A police detail met Senhora Lage at Pier 32 and escorted her in a rented limousine to the Guaranty Trust Company at 40 Rockeller Plaza, where the jewels were deposited for safekeeping.  Senhora Lage registered at the St. Regis Hotel, but ordered her luggage sent to the Plaza Hotel, four blocks farther north.  It was reported by her nephew, William Potter Lage, that there was no significance to the movement of the jewels or the visit of his aunt. 

February 1951

Dick Kraus sails as the ship's assistant photographer.

Read about an experience of his and view a few of his photos in S.S. Brazil > Memories and Photos.

September 7, 1951

Chief Cruise Hostess, Eleanor Britton, who shepherded thousands of passengers to their ships in time for sailing, missed the ship herself this week.

April 1, 1954

The S.S. Brazil, which had been laid up since last August, sailed from Baltimore with 251 passengers.  Her sister, the S.S. Uruguay, had just arrived in New York yesterday on her last voyage.  Captain Jesse R. Hodges transferred from the S.S. Uruguay to command the S.S. Brazil on the sailing from Baltimore.  Some 200 passengers were taken from Pennsylvania Station by special boat train to board her. 

November 11, 1954

His Excellency, Hon. João Fernandes de Campos Café Filho, President of the Republic of Brasil, honored the ship that bears the name of his country during her visit to the port of Rio de Janeiro.    The Brasilian National Anthem was played before he boarded the ship to have lunch with several notable guests.  Three weeks later "Time" magazine provided a distinguished illustrative cover supplementing four pages of attractive color photography of Brasil, including a Mooremack ship loading cargo at Santos. 

The S.S. Brazil hosted two other Presidents of Brasil during their presidency, Getulio Vargas and Eurico Dutra.

December 10, 1954

Captain Harry N. Sadler took his last sailing in command of the S.S. Brazil from Pier 32, North River, to Buenos Aires in the late afternoon.  Captain Sadler commanded ships since 1920.  His first command was the Lake Linden, a Shipping Board vessel, he then joined the Munson Line in 1921 as master of the Munrio and in 1926 took command of the Munson ship, Southern Cross.  He came to Mooremack as Master of the S.S. Brazil in 1938 when the Good Neighbor Fleet was started.  During World War II he sailed the S.S. Brazil as a troop ship to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope, and to North Africa, and across the Pacific.

January 24, 1955

Captain Harry N. Sadler docked his ship, the S.S. Brazil, for the last time. He should have returned a week ago, but while bound for Buenos Aires the vessel developed engine trouble the first day out and had to return to port for repairs. The delay spoiled a perfect record of performance, not only for the ship, but also for the 65-year old merchant mariner, who has been her commanding officer for the last 17 years.

To top it off, Captain Sadler had decided to buy a new visored cap, resplendent with gold braid, before making his final voyage. At a shipboard party held in his honor at Rio de Janeiro, an unidentified guest walked ashore with it.

Captain Sadler had been referred to as a "hawsepipe skipper," which is the nautical equivalent of a self-made man. He probably crossed the equator more times than any other man in the world. Every six weeks he watched the time-honored ceremony when Father Neptune and Davy Jones came aboard in Lat. 0 degrees, 0 mins., 0 secs., to initiate the landlubbers among the crew and passengers. In World War I, he served in the U.S. Navy aboard mine-sweepers. During World War II, he sailed on the S.S. Brazil as a troop ship to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope, and to North Africa, and across the Pacific.

Captain Sadler stated that retirement was not going to be the easiest kind of life and he has no elaborate plans for the future. He will make his headquarters at his home in Gloucester Court House, Virginia. His activities will consist of a little fishing, a little crabbing, and some puttering around the house.

November 30, 1957

The Federal Maritime Board approved the withdrawal of the liner the S.S. Brazil, leased by the Government to Moore-McCormack Lines.  William T. Moore, president of Moore-McCormack Lines, said that maintenance work and other obligations to keep the Brazil under charter from the Government would not be economically feasible.  Mr. Moore also said the new Brasil which will cost $26,000,000 would make the New York-Buenos Aires trip in 31 days, compared with 38 days for the old liner.

December 9, 1957

Today, the S.S. Brazil was replaced by the Excambion.  The Excambion had been scheduled to sail for the Mediterranean on December 13.  Passengers booked for this trip were accommodated on three similar ships operated by American Export Lines or on that company's luxury liners, the Constitution and Independence.  American Export Lines said it was able to offer the Excambion for charter because of current light demand for passenger space to the Near East and because the company has three similar ships on the run.

1958 - 1963

S.S. Brazil and S.S. Argentina joined the already laid-up S.S. Uruguay in the James River Reserve Fleet.  The United States retained many of her older passenger ships in vast "mothball defense fleets," supposedly awaiting some military emergency.  However, as the years passed, the possibilities of a call to duty seemed more and more remote. 

December 23, 1960

Captain Jesse R. Hodges passes away.

Late 1963

The S.S. Brazil was offered for sale by the U.S. Department of Commerce.

January 28, 1964

Initial bids were rejected, but the S.S. Brazil was sold to Portsmouth Salvage, Inc. for $133,333.  She was broken up by First Steel & Ship Corp., New York.

February 1966

Captain Harry N. Sadler passes away.

 


   
   

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